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郭 颂,杨卫君,李廷宇,杨 梅,陈雨欣,宋世龙,惠 超,耿洪伟.生物炭用量与灌水量对北疆灌区春小麦籽粒产量和品质综合评价[J].麦类作物学报,2024,(5):658
生物炭用量与灌水量对北疆灌区春小麦籽粒产量和品质综合评价
Comprehensive Evaluation of Biochar Amount and Irrigation Amount on Grain Yield and Quality of Spring Wheat in Irrigation District of Northern Xinjiang
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  生物炭  灌水量  春小麦  品质  综合评价
英文关键词:Biochar  Irrigation quantity  Spring wheat  Quality  Comprehensive evaluation
基金项目:国家自然科学基金地区科学基金项目(32260326);自治区大学生创新项目(2022);自治区研究生创新项目(XJ2023G153);新疆小麦产业技术体系项目(XJARS-01)
作者单位
郭 颂,杨卫君,李廷宇,杨 梅,陈雨欣,宋世龙,惠 超,耿洪伟 (新疆农业大学农学院/新疆优质专用麦类作物工程技术研究中心新疆乌鲁木齐 830052) 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨生物炭与灌水对春小麦产量和品质的综合效应,以北疆灌区春小麦为研究对象,通过随机区组试验,设置3个灌水量[4 500 m3·hm-2(W0)、4 050 m3·hm-2(W1)和3 600 m3·hm-2(W2)]和3个生物炭施用量[0 t·hm-2(B0)、10 t·hm-2(B1)和20 t·hm-2(B2)]水平,比较分析了不同生物炭用量与灌水量组合条件下春小麦干物质累积、产量和籽粒蛋白质含量等品质指标的差异,并运用基于熵值的DTOPSIS法进行综合效应评价。结果表明,不同灌水量条件下施用生物炭对春小麦干物质累积量影响均不显著,但可提升籽粒品质,灌水量和生物炭的交互作用对春小麦籽粒品质与产量的影响显著。在W0条件下春小麦籽粒蛋白含量随生物炭用量增加呈先升高后降低趋势,且所有施加生物炭处理的籽粒蛋白质含量均低于B0W0处理;W1条件下施加生物炭处理的籽粒蛋白质含量变化趋势与W0条件下一致;在W2条件下,籽粒蛋白含量(干基)、面筋含量(湿基)和Zeleny沉降值均随生物炭施加量的增加而升高,其中B2W2处理下三个指标均最高。在W0和W1条件下春小麦产量随生物炭施加量的增加呈先升高后降低趋势,其中B1W0处理产量最高,较B0W0处理高16.2%。采用基于熵值的DTOPSIS法分析表明,接近度f值前三名依次为B1W2、B2W2和B2W0处理。因此,生物炭施用量在10~20 t·hm-2、灌水量在3 600~4 050 m3·hm-2时可实现北疆灌区春小麦节水生产,具有较高的提质增产潜力。
英文摘要:
      In order to understand the comprehensive effect of biochar amount and irrigation amount on grain yield and quality of spring wheat in the irrigation area of northern Xinjiang, three irrigation levels of 4 500 m3·hm-2 (W0), 4 050 m3·hm-2 (W1), and 3 600 m3·hm-2 (W2), and three biochar application rates of 0 t·hm-2 (B0), 10 t·hm-2 (B1), and 20 t·hm-2 (B2) were set up in a randomized block design experiment. The dry matter accumulation, grain yield and some quality indices such as grain protein content of spring wheat were compared and comprehensively evaluated through DTOPSIS method under different treatments of biochar dosage and irrigation rate. The results showed that the effects of biochar on dry matter accumulation of spring wheat were not significant under different irrigation amounts, while the application of biochar promoted the grain quality of spring wheat, and the interaction of irrigation amount and biochar amount had significant effects on grain quality and yield of spring wheat. Under W0 treatments, the grain protein content of spring wheat increased first and then decreased with the increase of the biochar amount, and the grain protein content of spring wheat under the treatment of biochar was lower than that under the B0W0 treatment. The trend of grain protein content in spring wheat treated with biochar under W1 irrigation was the same as that under W0 irrigation. Under W2 irrigation, grain protein (dry base), gluten (wet base), and Zeleny sedimentation of spring wheat increased with the increase of biochar application, among which B2W2 treatment had the highest values. Under W0 and W1 irrigation, spring wheat yield initially increased and then decreased with the increase of biochar application, and the highest yield under B1W0 treatment was 16.2% higher than that under B0W0 treatment. The entropy based DTOPSIS analysis showed that the top three treatments of proximity f value were B1W2, B2W2 and B2W0. Therefore, it is concluded that the application amount of biochar in the range of 10-20 t·hm-2 and the irrigation amount in the range of 4 050-3 600 m3·hm-2 have the potential to improve the quality of spring wheat and increase farmland water saving in the irrigation area of northern Xinjiang.
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