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赵鑫琳,邢俊刚,薛丽华,孙诗仁,章建新,毛智民.播种模式对新疆小麦干物质积累和产量及水分利用效率的影响[J].麦类作物学报,2024,(5):639
播种模式对新疆小麦干物质积累和产量及水分利用效率的影响
Effects of Sowing Patterns on Dry Matter Accumulation, Yield, and Water Use Efficiency of Wheat in Xinjiang
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  播种模式  冬小麦  春小麦  干物质积累  产量
英文关键词:Sowing pattern  Winter wheat  Spring wheat  Dry matter accumulation  Yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(32060433);新疆农业科学院自主培育专项(xjnkyzzp-2022001)
作者单位
赵鑫琳,邢俊刚,薛丽华,孙诗仁,章建新,毛智民 (1. 新疆农业大学农学院新疆乌鲁木齐8300522. 新疆农业科学院粮食作物研究所新疆乌鲁木齐830091) 
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中文摘要:
      为确定北疆小麦适宜的播种模式,以北疆主栽冬小麦品种新冬18号和新冬41号及春小麦品种新春44号和新春48号为材料,设置晚播冬小麦(10月8日播种,用B1表示)、极晚播冬小麦和冬播春小麦(10月28日播种,用B2表示)以及春播春小麦(4月4日播种,用B3表示)三种播种模式,比较分析了播种模式间小麦的生育进程、总茎数、叶面积指数、光合势、干物质积累量、经济系数、产量及水分利用效率的差异。结果表明,B2处理的冬小麦较B1处理晚熟约7 d,生育期缩短162 d,出苗率、最高总茎数、LAI、总光合势、干物质积累量及总耗水量分别降低27.6个百分点、17.1%、11.5%、9.6%、3.7%和15.9%,而水分利用效率提高15.7%,平均经济系数和产量与B1处理无显著差异;B2处理的春小麦较B3处理早熟7 d,生育期延长约4 d,出苗率、最高总茎数、LAI和总耗水量分别降低28.1个百分点、7.6%、5.2%和12.3%,总光合势、成熟期干物质积累量、经济系数、水分利用效率和产量分别提高6.3%、4.0%、4.5%、24.0%和8.7%;B2处理下冬小麦较春小麦晚熟约4 d,生育期延长约3 d,出苗率和最高总茎数的平均值分别降低7.9个百分点和7.6%,产量和水分利用效率均无显著差异。极晚播冬小麦和冬播春小麦的平均产量和水分利用效率均较高,其中产量与晚播冬小麦差异均不显著,熟期接近。综合考虑高产和节水及早熟的需求。本试验条件下,冬小麦极晚播和春小麦冬播是北疆地区小麦的适宜播种模式。
英文摘要:
      In order to determine the suitable late sowing pattern of wheat in the northern Xinjiang, the main winter wheat varieties Xindong 18 and Xindong 41 and spring wheat varieties Xinchun 44 and Xinchun 48 were used as materials to set up three sowing patterns of late sowing winter wheat (sown on October 8, designated as B1), very late sowing winter wheat and winter sowing spring wheat (sown on October 28, designated as B2) and spring sowing spring wheat (sowing on April 4, designated as B3). Three sowing patterns were compared and analyzed for differences in fertility process, total stem number, leaf area index, photosynthetic potential, dry matter accumulation, economic coefficient, yield and water use efficiency of wheat among the sowing patterns. The results showed that winter wheat under the B2 treatment matured about 7 d later than that under the B1 treatment; the fertility period was shortened by 162 d; and the seedling rate, maximum total stem number, LAI, total photosynthetic potential, dry matter accumulation and total water consumption were reduced by 27.6 percentage points, 17.1%, 11.5%, 9.6%, 3.7%, and 15.9%, respectively, whereas the water-use efficiency was increased by 15.7%, and the average economic coefficients and yields were not significantly different from those under the B1 treatment. Spring wheat under the B2 treatment matured 7 d earlier than that under the B3 treatment; the fertility period was extended by about 4 d; the seedling emergence rate, the maximum total stem number, LAI and total water consumption were reduced by 28.1 percentage points, 7.6%, 5.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, and the total photosynthetic potential, the accumulation of dry matter at the ripening stage, the economic coefficients, the water-utilization efficiency and the yields were increased by 6.3%, 4.0%, 4.0%, 4.5%, 24.0% and 8.7%, respectively. Under B2 treatment, the winter wheat matured about 4 d later than spring wheat; the fertility period was prolonged by about 3 d; the mean values of seedling emergence rate and the maximum total number of stems were reduced by 7.9 percentage points and 7.6%, respectively, and there were no significant differences in yield and water use efficiency. The average yield and water use efficiency of very late sowing winter wheat and winter sown spring wheat were higher, in which the differences between yield and late sown winter wheat were not significant, and the maturity period was close. Taking high yield, water saving, and early maturity into consideration, under the conditions of this experiment, very late sowing of winter wheat and winter sowing of spring wheat are suitable sowing patterns for wheat in the northern Xinjiang.
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