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张 月,贺 威,崔国际,王鸣燕,秦博雅,曹金婷,陶景雯,汪林洁,黄正来,张文静,马尚宇,樊永惠.夜间增温对灌浆期高温胁迫下小麦干物质及灌浆特性的影响[J].麦类作物学报,2024,(5):626
夜间增温对灌浆期高温胁迫下小麦干物质及灌浆特性的影响
Effects of Night Warming on Dry Matter and Grouting Characteristics of Wheat under High Temperature Stress at Grain Filling Stage
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  夜间增温  灌浆期高温胁迫  小麦  干物质积累与分配  灌浆特性
英文关键词:Night warming  High temperature stress at grain filling stage  Wheat  Dry matter accumulation and distribution  Grain filling characteristics
基金项目:安徽省教育厅基金项目(KJ2021A0199);安徽省科技重大专项(202003a06020014);国家自然科学基金项目(U19A2021);安徽农业大学稳定和引进人才科研项目(yj2018 38);安徽省高等学校自然科学研究项目(KJ2021A0199)
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张 月,贺 威,崔国际,王鸣燕,秦博雅,曹金婷,陶景雯,汪林洁,黄正来,张文静,马尚宇,樊永惠 (安徽农业大学农学院/农业部黄淮南部小麦生物学与遗传育种重点实验室, 安徽合肥230036) 
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中文摘要:
      为了解灌浆期高温胁迫下小麦生产力对不同阶段夜间增温的反应,以对温度敏感性不同的两个小麦品种扬麦18(春性品种)和烟农19(半冬性品种)为试验材料,采用可移动塑料增温棚,于2021-2022年对小麦进行不同阶段夜间增温[分蘖期-拔节期增温(WT-JN)、拔节期-孕穗期增温(WJ-BN)和孕穗期-开花期增温(WB-AN)]及灌浆期高温胁迫处理,比较分析了不同处理下小麦干物质积累及灌浆特性的差异。结果表明,WT-JN和WJ-BN处理主要通过缩短小麦播种-开花的时长,延长灌浆期天数,增加花前干物质转运量、花后干物质积累量和花后干物质积累贡献率,进而提高了开花期和成熟期干物质积累量;促进了干物质在成熟期穗轴+颖壳和籽粒中的积累,降低了小麦茎鞘+叶片中的积累量,增产3.08%~7.62%。灌浆期高温胁迫显著降低了两个品种的产量,而与灌浆期高温胁迫处理(NH)相比,WT-JH和WJ-BH处理增产1.21%~6.05%。与不增温处理(NN)相比,在WT-JN和WJ-BN处理下两个小麦品种的灌浆期粒重及灌浆速率均提高,WB-AN和NH处理则降低了小麦灌浆参数。这说明分蘖期-拔节期和拔节期-孕穗期夜间增温可提高小麦开花期和成熟期的干物质积累量,促进小麦籽粒灌浆,缓解灌浆期高温胁迫对小麦生产力的不利影响,有助于小麦产量形成。
英文摘要:
      In order to understand the response of wheat productivity to night warming at different stages under high temperature stress at grain filling stage, two varieties Yangmai 18(spring variety) and Yannong 19(semi winter variety) with different temperature sensitivity were used as experimental materials during 2021—2022. The dry matter accumulation and grain filling characteristics of wheat under different treatments were compared and analyzed by night warming at different stages of tillering-jointing (WT-JN), jointing-booting (WJ-BN), and booting-flowering (WB-AN). The results showed that WT-JN and WJ-BN improved the dry matter accumulation at flowering and maturity stages mainly by shortening the seeding-flowering time, extending the grain filling period, increasing the dry matter transfer before flowering, dry matter accumulation after flowering and dry matter accumulation contribution rate after flowering. It promoted the accumulation of dry matter in ear axle + glume and kernel, decreased the accumulation in stem sheath + leaf, and increased the yield by 3.08%~7.62%. High temperature stress significantly decreased the yield of the two wheat varieties at grain filling stage, while WT-JH and WJ-BH treatments increased the yield of the two wheat varieties by 1.21% to 6.05% compared with NH. Compared with NN, the grain weight and filling rate of the two wheat varieties increased under WT-JN and WJ-BN treatments. Compared with NN, WB-AN and NH treatments reduced grain filling parameters of the two wheat varieties, while night warming treatments at tiller stage-jointing stage and jointing stage-booting stage alleviated the decrease of grain filling characteristics under high temperature stress at filling stage. Increasing temperature at night at tillering stage, jointing stage and booting stage improved the filling characteristics of wheat grains, thus increased the dry matter accumulation at flowering stage and ripening stage, and alleviated the decrease of wheat productivity caused by high temperature stress at filling stage, which was conducive to the improvement of wheat yield, and provided theoretical and practical reference for the cultivation of wheat with high yield due to climate warming under extreme weather.
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