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蒋文月,葛雨洋,李亦辰,李春燕,朱 敏,朱新开,郭文善,丁锦峰.拔节期和花后渍水对不同品种小麦产量及相关农艺性状的影响[J].麦类作物学报,2024,(5):614
拔节期和花后渍水对不同品种小麦产量及相关农艺性状的影响
Effects of Waterlogging at Stem-Elongation and Post-Anthesis Stages on Grain Yield and Related Agronomic Traits of Different Wheat Cultivars
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  渍水胁迫  小麦品种  籽粒产量  农艺性状  耐渍性
英文关键词:Waterlogging stress  Wheat varieties  Grain yield  Agronomic character  Waterlogging resistance
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(32071953);江苏省现代农业(小麦)产业技术体系项目;江苏高校优势学科建设工程项目;扬州大学优秀科技创新团队项目
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蒋文月,葛雨洋,李亦辰,李春燕,朱 敏,朱新开,郭文善,丁锦峰 (扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理国家重点实验室培育点/粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/扬州大学小麦研究中心江苏扬州225009) 
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中文摘要:
      为给小麦抗逆高产栽培提供参考,以22个小麦品种为材料,于2018—2019和2019—2020年度分别开展拔节期和花后渍水处理,以自然生长条件为对照,分析渍水对籽粒产量及其相关农艺性状的影响,筛选耐渍高产品种并明确其耐渍高产机制。结果表明,拔节期和花后渍水处理造成小麦籽粒产量分别下降29.6%~59.1%和7.9%~49.1%,均显著降低穗粒数、千粒重、花后干物质积累量和乳熟期LAI。根据两年度不同水分处理下平均籽粒产量和渍后产量的降幅,筛选出相对高产耐渍品种扬麦25及耐渍性较突出品种宁麦22和生选6号。相关性分析表明,不同水分处理下穗粒数、乳熟期LAI、旗叶RuBPCase活性以及花后和成熟期干物质积累量与籽粒产量均呈显著正相关。渍水处理下穗粒数降幅、千粒重降幅、花后干物质积累量降幅、乳熟期LAI降幅与产量降幅均呈显著正相关。花后光合面积大、光合速率高的品种,通过多生产光合物质以供应籽粒灌浆,促进产量形成;渍水导致的光合面积减少和物质生产能力降低是制约高产稳产的关键因素。因此,渍水胁迫下改善小麦生育中后期叶片光合生产能力,尤其是绿叶面积,有助于降低穗粒数和千粒重的渍后降幅;渍水条件下高叶片光合生产能力和穗产量可作为高效筛选高产耐渍品种的依据。
英文摘要:
      In order to provide references for the stress-tolerance and high-yield cultivation of wheat, the waterlogging treatments at stem-elongation and post-anthesis stages were carried out in wheat seasons of 2018—2019 and 2019—2020, respectively, using 22 wheat cultivars as materials, and the natural growth condition was as the control treatment. The effects of waterlogging on grain yield and related agronomic traits were analyzed; the cultivars with high-yield and waterlogging-tolerance were screened, and the mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance and high yield were clarified. The results showed that grain yield was reduced by 29.6%—59.1% under waterlogging at stem-elongation stage and by 7.9%—49.1% under waterlogging at post-anthesis stage. The waterlogging treatments significantly decreased the grain number per spike, 1 000-grain weight, dry matter accumulation after anthesis, and LAI at milk-ripening stage. According to the average grain yield under different waterlogging treatments and yield reduction caused by waterlogging in the two years, the cultivar Yangmai 25 showed the characters of relatively high-yield and waterlogging-tolerance among the tested cultivars, and Ningmai 22 and Shengxuan 6 performed an outstanding waterlogging tolerance. Correlation analysis showed that grain number per spike, LAI at the milk-ripening stage, RuBPCase activity of flag leaf, and dry matter accumulation after anthesis and at maturity were significantly positively correlated with grain yield under different treatments. The reductions in grain number per spike, 1 000-grain weight, dry matter accumulation after anthesis, and LAI at the milk-ripening stage due to waterlogging stress were significantly positively correlated with grain yield under waterlogging treatment. The results indicated that the cultivars with large photosynthetic area and high photosynthetic rate after anthesis can supply grain formation and filling by producing more photosynthetic substances, further promoting yield formation. The reductions in photosynthetic area and production capacity caused by waterlogging were the key factors restricting high yield and stable production. Therefore, improving the photosynthetic production capacity of leaves during the medium and late growth stages under waterlogging stress, especially the green leaf area, can help reduce the decline in grain number per spike and 1 000-grain weight. It is proposed that high leaf photosynthetic production capacity and spike yield under waterlogging conditions can be used as the basis of efficiently screening high-yield and waterlogging-tolerance cultivars.
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