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赵心雨,郭宇燕,张 璐,赖朝晖,黄福旦,胡东维,梁五生.2019年浙江省部分地区小麦赤霉病菌种群组成及其对杀菌剂的敏感性调查[J].麦类作物学报,2022,(10):1301
2019年浙江省部分地区小麦赤霉病菌种群组成及其对杀菌剂的敏感性调查
Research on Composition of Fusarium Populations and Sensitivity to Fungicidal Agents in 2019 at Some Areas in Zhejiang Province
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.2022.10.15
中文关键词:  小麦  赤霉病菌  种群组成  杀菌药剂
英文关键词:Wheat  Fusarium spp.  Population composition  Fungicidal agent
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200501)
作者单位
赵心雨,郭宇燕,张 璐,赖朝晖,黄福旦,胡东维,梁五生 (1.浙江大学农业与生物技术学院生物技术研究所/农业部作物病虫分子生物学重点实验室/浙江省作物病虫生物学重点实验室浙江杭州 3100582.浙江省象山县农业技术推广中心浙江象山 3157003.浙江省杭州市萧山区农业技术推广中心浙江杭州 311203) 
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中文摘要:
      为了解2019年浙江省小麦赤霉病菌的种群组成及其对杀菌剂的敏感性,调查了浙江省3个地区(杭州市萧山区、杭州市桐庐县、宁波市象山县)麦田的稻桩带菌率和小麦病穗率,利用PCR和DNA测序技术鉴定病菌的种群组成。结果显示,3月份3个地区田间稻桩的赤霉病菌子囊壳携带率为26.4%~55.4%,其释放的子囊孢子能正常萌发长出菌丝并快速形成菌落;小麦田间3月份空气中赤霉病菌游动孢子数量最多,4-5月份数量有所下降;田间小麦于4月份中旬开始出现病穗,4月下旬病穗率快速攀升;从386个分离菌株中随机选择的32个菌株均被鉴定为亚洲镰孢菌(Fusarium asiaticum);72个菌株被认定为多菌灵(10 mg·L-1)抗性菌株,约占分离菌株的18.65%。采用菌丝生长速率法检测16个分离菌株对杀菌药剂的敏感性,发现75%肟菌·戊唑醇水分散粒剂和30%唑醚·戊唑醇悬浮剂对分离菌株的EC50值(有效抑制中浓度)均低于5.0 mg·L-1,40%戊唑·咪鲜胺微乳剂和25%氰烯菌酯悬浮剂对分离菌株的EC50值均低于2.0 μL·L-1,表明上述4种药剂的抑菌效果均良好;进一步对这4种杀菌药剂进行两两混配,检测对16个分离菌株的抑菌效果,发现混配方案“75%肟菌·戊唑醇水分散粒剂”+“30%唑醚·戊唑醇悬浮剂”对分离菌株的抑菌效果最强。
英文摘要:
      In order to understand the composition of wheat Fusarium populations in Zhejiang Province in 2019 and their sensitivity to fungicidal agents,we carried out research on the rates of perithecium-positive rice stubbles and wheat Fusarium head blight(FHB) at three sites in Zhejiang Province(Xiaoshan and Tonglu in Hangzhou,and Xiangshan in Ningbo),PCR and DNA sequencing technologies were used to analyze the composition of wheat Fusarium populations. The results showed that perithecia of Fusarium spp. existed in 26.4%-55.4% tested rice stubbles in the fields,and ascospores released from the perithecia normally germinated and the hyphae rapidly grew into colonies during culture experiments. The number of zoospores of Fusarium spp. trapped from the wheat fields air were highest in March,but declined in April and May. Diseased spikes with FHB were first found in the fields in the middle of April and the percentage of diseased spikes increased dramatically in late April. All the 32 strains randomly selected from 386 isolated strains of Fusarium spp.were confirmed to be Fusarium asiaticum.72 strains were determined to be resistant to carbendazim(10 mg·L-1),accounting for 18.65% of the isolated strains of Fusarium spp.. The fungicidal sensitivity of 16 pathogens were determined by the method of mycelium growth rate,the results showed that EC50 values of trifloxystrobin·tebuconazole 75% WG and pyraclostrobin·tebuconazole 30% SC to the isolated strains of Fusarium spp. were less than 5.0 mg·L-1,and those of tebuconazole·prochloraz 40% ME and phenamacril 25% SC were less than 2.0 μL·L-1,which indicated that the Fusarium spp.strains were sensitive to four fungicidal agents. By pairwise mixing the above four fungicidal agents,the mixing formulation of trifloxystrobin·tebuconazole 75% WG with pyraclostrobin·tebuconazole 30% SC displayed the most strong inhibitory effect on Fusarium spp. strains.
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