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周冬冬,张 军,李福建,葛梦婕,李必忠,刘忠红,张永进,李春燕,朱新开.稻秸还田与耕作方式对小麦产量形成及籽粒品质的影响[J].麦类作物学报,2022,(10):1273
稻秸还田与耕作方式对小麦产量形成及籽粒品质的影响
Effects of Rice Straw-Returning and Tillage Modes onYield Formation and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.2022.10.12
中文关键词:  稻秸还田  耕作方式  出苗  干物质转运  产量  品质
英文关键词:Rice straw-returning  Tillage modes  Seedling emergence  Dry matter translocation  Yield  Grain quality
基金项目:江苏现代农业产业技术体系建设项目(JATS[2019]187);江苏现代农业产业技术体系建设项目(JATS[2020]177);江苏现代农业技术体系建设项目(JATS[2021]200)
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周冬冬,张 军,李福建,葛梦婕,李必忠,刘忠红,张永进,李春燕,朱新开 (1.淮安市农业技术推广中心江苏淮安 2230012.扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/扬州大学小麦研究中心江苏扬州 225009) 
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中文摘要:
      为明确不同秸秆还田模式下耕作方式对小麦籽粒产量及品质的影响,在沿淮下游地区,以淮麦36为材料,通过二因素裂区试验,以稻秸全量还田(S1)、稻秸不还田(S0)2种秸秆还田模式为主区,以免耕(T1)、旋耕(T2)、翻耕(T3)3种耕作方式为副区,比较分析了不同处理下小麦出苗、干物质转运、产量和品质等方面的差异。结果表明,在土壤墒情适宜(两年度土壤相对含水量分别为78.6%和72.5%)条件下,稻秸全量还田免耕处理的小麦出苗率和出苗均匀度较不还田处理分别下降了14.04%和28.46%,有效穗数降低4.37%,差异均显著。翻耕可减弱秸秆还田对小麦出苗带来的不利影响,提高出苗率和出苗均匀度,改善播种质量,增加拔节后光合面积,促进花后光合物质生产,增粒增重,最终实现增产,使产量较免耕平均增加12.85%。稻秸还田与翻耕均可改善小麦加工和营养品质。综上,稻秸全量还田结合翻耕有助于实现高产优质小麦的生产,适宜在沿淮下游稻茬麦区推广应用。
英文摘要:
      To study the effects of different straw returning and tillage modes on grain yield and quality of wheat following rice,using Huaimai 36 as the material, the effects on seedling emergence, dry matter translocation, grain yield and quality were determined in the lower reaches along Huaihe River. The two-factor split-plot test was designed, with total rice straw returning to the field (S1) and non-rice straw returning to the field (S0) as 2 main plots, and 3 tillage modes no-tillage (T1), rotary tillage (T2) and ploughing tillage (T3) as subplots. Under the conditions of suitable soil moisture content (78.6% and 72.5%), the results showed that under the treatment of total rice straw returning, no-tillage reduced the emergence rate of wheat seedlings and evenness of emergence, which was 14.04% and 28.46% lower than that under no rice straw returning treatment, resulting in a significant decrease in spike number by 4.37%. Ploughing tillage was beneficial to reduce the negative effects of straw returning on wheat emergence, and its emergence rate and evenness of emergence were better than those of rotary tillage and no-tillage, which was conducive to improve the quality of sowing. Ploughing tillage also had a larger photosynthetic area after jointing, promoted the production of photosynthetic substances after flowering, increased the grain number per spike and 1 000-grain weight, and finally achieved yield increase, with an average increase rate of 12.85% compared with that under no-tillage. Rice straw returning and tillage modes both improved the processing and nutritional quality of wheat. Therefore, total rice straw returning to the field combined with ploughing tillage was helpful to realize the high yield and quality of wheat in this region, which can be used as a better management practice for wheat following rice in the lower reaches along Huaihe River.
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