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盖盼盼,侯君佑,耿兵婕,张文静,樊永惠,黄正来.花后渍水和高温对小麦旗叶光合特性、干物质积累及产量的影响[J].麦类作物学报,2022,(10):1247
花后渍水和高温对小麦旗叶光合特性、干物质积累及产量的影响
Effect of Waterlogging and High Temperature Post-Anthesis on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaves, Dry MatterAccumulation and Yield in Wheat
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.2022.10.09
中文关键词:  渍水  高温  光合特性  干物质积累  产量
英文关键词:Waterlogging  High temperature  Photosynthetic characteristics  Dry matter accumulation  Yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31801287);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300405);2021年国家级大学生创新创业训练计划项目(202110364044)
作者单位
盖盼盼,侯君佑,耿兵婕,张文静,樊永惠,黄正来 (1.安徽农业大学农学院/农业农村部黄淮南部小麦生物学与遗传育种重点实验室安徽合肥 2300362.江苏省现代作物生产协同创新中心江苏南京 210095) 
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中文摘要:
      为了解花后渍水和高温对小麦旗叶光合特性、干物质积累与分配和产量的影响,以扬麦18和烟农19为试验材料,采用盆栽法,在小麦开花期设置渍水(WL)、高温(HL)和渍水+高温复合胁迫(WL+HL)处理,以正常生长为对照(CK),测定并分析了不同处理下小麦旗叶光合指标、干物质积累量、产量及其差异。结果表明,与CK比较,花后渍水、高温、渍水+高温胁迫均显著降低了2小麦品种旗叶的SPAD值、净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)、最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、实际光化学效率ФPSⅡ,增加了胞间CO2浓度(Ci)。花后渍水、高温、渍水+高温胁迫处理较CK降低了成熟期各器官干物质积累量及籽粒占总干物质积累量的比例,提高了营养器官所占比例;显著降低了小麦穗粒数、千粒重和产量。渍水+高温复合胁迫对光合指标、干物质积累量以及产量的影响程度明显大于渍水和高温单一因素,高温对其影响大于渍水。在花后21 d时,被测光合参数(除Ci)均与产量呈正相关关系,Ci与产量呈负相关关系,其中扬麦18的ФPSⅡPn对其产量影响较大,烟农19 的SPAD值、Pn对其产量影响较大。
英文摘要:
      In order to study the effects of waterlogging and high temperature after anthesis on the photosynthetic characteristics of flag leaves, dry matter accumulation and distribution, and yield of wheat, a pot experiment was conducted using Yangmai 18 and Yannong 19 as materials. Four treatments were set up, i.e,WL(waterlogging), HL(high temperature) and HL+WL(high temperature and waterlogging) and CK(normal conditions), to analyze the differences in photosynthetic indices, dry matter accumulation and yield between different treatments. The results showed that the SPAD, net photosynthetic rate(Pn), transpiration rate(Tr), stomatal conductance(Gs),maximum photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency ФPSⅡ and increased intercellular CO2(Ci) concentration of flag leaves of the two wheat cultivars were significantly reduced by post-flowering waterlogging, high temperature and waterlogging+high temperature stress. After flowering, waterlogging, high temperature, waterlogging + high temperature stress reduced the dry matter accumulation of various organs and the proportion of grains to total dry matter accumulation at the maturity stage, but increased the proportion of vegetative organs,leading to the significant reduction in the number of grains per ear, thousand-kernel weight and yield of wheat. The effects of waterlogging + high temperature compound stress on photosynthetic indices, dry matter accumulation and yield were significantly greater than those of individual waterlogging or high temperature, and high temperature had greater effect than waterlogging. At 21 d after flowering, photosynthetic parameters(except for Ci) were positively correlated with yield, but Ci was negatively correlated with yield. Among them, ФPSⅡ and Pn of Yangmai 18 had the greatest impact on yield, and SPAD and Pn of Yannong 19 had the greatest effect on yield.
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