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郭莹,王振平,吕迎春,虎梦霞,马小乐,杨芳萍.不同麦类种质抗旱性评价及优异种质筛选[J].麦类作物学报,2022,(10):1208
不同麦类种质抗旱性评价及优异种质筛选
Evaluation of Drought Resistance and Excellent Germplasm Screening in Different Triticeae Crops
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.2022.10.05
中文关键词:  CIMMYT麦类种质  水分胁迫  叶绿素荧光参数  产量  抗旱指数  灰色关联度
英文关键词:CIMMYT Triticeae crops germplasm  Water stress  Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters  Yield  Drought tolerance index  Gray relational grade
基金项目:兰州市科技计划项目(2019-1-81);甘肃省农业科学院现代生物育种项目(2021GAAS03);国家自然科学基金项目(32160471,32060481)
作者单位
郭莹,王振平,吕迎春,虎梦霞,马小乐,杨芳萍 (1.甘肃省农业科学院甘肃兰州 7300702.甘肃农业大学农学院甘肃兰州 7300703.新疆天浩种业有限公司新疆昌吉 831100) 
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中文摘要:
      为了解不同麦类种质的抗旱性,进一步发掘小麦近缘种的优势性状以改良小麦品种,2018—2019年在兰州新区和武威黄羊镇对引自国际玉米小麦改良中心(CIMMYT)的灌溉圃小麦、干旱半干旱圃小麦、合成小麦、硬粒小麦和小黑麦设置了正常灌溉和水分胁迫两种处理,在拔节期、抽穗期、灌浆期对心叶或旗叶进行了叶绿素荧光动力学参数测定,并进行了农艺性状鉴定和产量测定,分析了不同生育期叶绿素荧光参数的变化及其与抗旱指数的关系。结果表明,水分胁迫对不同麦类作物产量构成因素的影响程度不同导致其抗旱性有差异。水分胁迫下,PSⅡ潜在活性(Fv/Fo)、PSⅡ反应中心最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、PSⅡ实际光化学量子效率(Fq/Fm)均较正常灌溉下降低,而非光化学淬灭系数(NPQ)升高。随小麦发育进程推移,Fv/FoFv/FmFq/Fm呈先升后降的趋势,NPQ呈上升趋势。荧光参数的变化说明,干旱胁迫导致PSⅡ结构受损,反应中心受到破坏,光能转化效率降低,电子传递受阻。灰色关联度分析显示,灌浆期荧光参数与抗旱指数的关联度较高,其次为抽穗期、拔节期,各荧光参数与抗旱指数关联度为Fv/Fm>Fq/Fm>Fv/Fo>NPQ。基于农艺性状、抗旱指数和叶绿素荧光参数,得出不同麦类种质的抗旱性强度依次为小黑麦、干旱半干旱圃小麦、灌溉圃小麦、合成小麦;筛选出9份优异材料,可用于今后小麦育种。
英文摘要:
      In order to evaluate resistance to drought for different Triticeae germplasms and explore their advantage traits which will be applied in wheat improvement,irrigated wheat,arid and semi-arid wheat,synthetic wheat,durum wheat and triticale from CIMMYT were screened and evaluated in Lanzhou New District and Wuwei Huangyang Town in 2018 and 2019.The chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic parameters of flag leaves were measured at jointing stage,heading stage and grain-filling stage,and the agronomic characteristics and yield were identified. The changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at different growth stages and their relationship with drought resistance index were analyzed. The results showed that water stress had different effects on yield components of different wheat crops,resulting in different drought resistance. Under water stress,the potential activity of PSⅡ(Fv/Fo),the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm) and the actual photochemical quantum efficiency of PSⅡ(Fq/Fm) were lower than those under normal irrigation,but the non-photochemical quenching coefficient(NPQ) was higher. With the development of wheat,Fv/Fo,Fv/Fm and Fq/Fm increased first and then decreased,while NPQ increased. The change of fluorescence parameters showed that drought stress led to the damage of PSⅡ structure,the destruction of reaction center,the reduction of light energy conversion efficiency and the obstruction of electron transfer. The grey correlation analysis showed that the correlation between fluorescence parameters and drought resistance index was high at grain-filling stage,followed by that at heading stage and jointing stage. The correlation between fluorescence parameters and drought resistance index was Fv/Fm>Fq/Fm>Fv/Fo>NPQ. Based on agronomic characteristics,drought resistance index,and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters,it was concluded that the drought resistance of different wheat germplasm ranked as triticale,arid and semi-arid wheat,irrigated wheat and synthetic wheat,and nine excellent materials were screened out,which can be used in wheat breeding in the future.
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