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黄玉芳,张 辉,张立花,张红燕,张雯雯,赵亚南,叶优良.施磷量对高磷土壤小麦磷素吸收和土壤磷平衡的影响[J].麦类作物学报,2022,(2):211
施磷量对高磷土壤小麦磷素吸收和土壤磷平衡的影响
Effects of Phosphorus(P) Fertilizer Rates on Wheat P Uptake and Soil P Balance in High-P Soil
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.2022.02.10
中文关键词:  小麦  磷肥  干物质  磷素吸收  土壤养分平衡
英文关键词:Wheat  phosphorus fertilizer  Dry matter  Phosphorus uptake  Soil nutrient balance
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0200100);河南省高等学校重点科研项目(20A21000018)
作者单位
黄玉芳,张 辉,张立花,张红燕,张雯雯,赵亚南,叶优良 (河南农业大学资源与环境学院河南郑州 450002) 
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中文摘要:
      为给高磷土壤小麦磷管理提供依据,在河南省温县速效磷为49.1 mg·kg-1的土壤上开展2年田间试验,设置5个施磷量水平(0、45、90、135、180 kg P2O5·hm-2),研究施磷量对小麦产量、干物质积累、磷素吸收利用及土壤磷素平衡的影响。结果表明,随施磷水平的提高,小麦产量呈先增后减趋势,且两年分别在90和135 kg·hm-2施磷量下最高。90 kg·hm-2施磷处理显著提高小麦干物质积累量,施磷量进一步增加时干物质累积量无显著变化,叶片等各器官均表现出相似趋势。第一年小麦花后干物质转运量以90 kg·hm-2施磷处理最高,转运效率为36.7%;第二年花后干物质转运量以135 kg·hm-2施磷处理最高,转运效率为30.9%。小麦开花期和收获期磷素积累量均以90 kg·hm-2施磷处理最高,施磷处理收获期吸磷量比不施磷处理增加14.5%~44.6%,开花后各器官磷素转运量和转运效率以90 kg·hm-2施磷处理相对较高。磷肥利用率随着施磷量增加呈下降趋势,90 kg·hm-2施磷处理下磷肥利用率相对较高,磷肥偏生产力、农学效率、表观回收率两年平均为130.8 kg·kg-1、 10.6 kg·kg-1、23.9%。磷肥用量高于90 kg·hm-2时,土壤磷素呈盈余状况;在90 kg·hm-2施磷水平下土壤磷素盈余0.1~17.3 kg·hm-2;在施磷135 kg·hm-2和180 kg·hm-2时,土壤磷素盈余量分别为32.1~77.5和101.5~115.3 kg·hm-2。这说明,在土壤磷素肥力较高的情况下,推荐施磷量90 kg·hm-2,可促进干物质和磷素积累,提高小麦产量,同时维持合理的磷肥利用率及磷素平衡状况。
英文摘要:
      In order to provide basis for wheat phosphorus management in high phosphorus soil,a two-year field experiment was carried out on the soil with 49.1 mg·kg-1 available phosphorus in Wenxian County,Henan Province. Five phosphorus application levels(0,45,90,135,and 180 kg P2O5·hm-2) were set to study the effects of phosphorus application on wheat yield,dry matter accumulation,phosphorus uptake and utilization and soil phosphorus balance. The results showed that with the increase of phosphorus application level,wheat yield increased first and then decreased,and the highest was under 90 and 135 kg·hm-2 phosphorus application in two years. The application of phosphorus 90 kg·hm-2 increased the dry matter accumulation of wheat. If the application of phosphorus further increased,the dry matter accumulation did not increase significantly,and the leaves and other organs showed a similar trend. In the first year,the dry matter transport capacity of wheat after anthesis was the highest under 90 kg·hm-2,and the transport rate was 36.7%. In the second year,the highest dry matter transfer was 135 kg·hm-2,and the transfer rate was 30.9%. The phosphorus accumulation in wheat at flowering and harvest stages was the highest under 90 kg·hm-2. The phosphorus uptake of phosphorus application treatment was 14.5%-44.6% higher than that of no phosphorus application at harvest stage. The phosphorus transport capacity and transport rate of various organs after flowering were relatively higher under 90 kg·hm-2. The utilization rate of phosphorus fertilizer decreased with the increase of phosphorus application rate. When the phosphorus application rate was 90 kg·hm-2,it maintained a relatively high utilization rate of phosphorus fertilizer. The average partial productivity,agronomic efficiency and apparent recovery rate in the two years were 130.8 kg·kg-1,10.6 kg·kg-1 and 23.9%. When the amount of phosphorus fertilizer was higher than 90 kg·hm-2,the soil phosphorus showed a surplus condition. Under the phosphorus application level of 90 kg·hm-2,the surplus was 0.1-17.3 kg·hm-2. At 135 kg·hm-2 and 180 kg·hm-2,the surplus was 32.1-77.5 kg·hm-2 and 101.5-115.3 kg·hm-2,respectively. This study shows that under the conditions of high soil phosphorus fertility,the recommended phosphorus application rate of 90 kg·hm-2 can promote the accumulation of dry matter and phosphorus,improve wheat yield,and maintain reasonable phosphorus utilization rate and phosphorus balance.
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