| In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and sulfur rate on grain yield,grain quality,and nitrogen use efficiency of wheat following rice,a field experiment was conducted under the conditions of rice straws returned into the field in the full quantity. The treatments contained three levels of nitrogen rate (0,195,and 270 kg·hm-2) and three levels of sulfur rate (0,30,and 60 kg·hm-2). The results showed that,with the increases of nitrogen application,spike number,kernel number per spike,and grain yield were significantly increased,and the dough development time and stability time were extended. However,the agronomic efficiency and apparent nitrogen utilization efficiency decreased significantly,and the content of amylopectin,albumin,gliadin,and glutenin in grains decreased when the nitrogen application rate was increased form 195 kg·hm-2 to 270 kg·hm-2. The results also showed that increasing sulfur rate greatly increased wheat grain yield,dough development time,and stability time,and promoted the content of amylopectin,gluten,and total protein in grains. Compared with other treatment combinations,nitrogen rate of 195 kg·hm-2 combined with sulfur rate of 60 kg·hm-2 improved total nitrogen accumulation,nitrogen agronomy efficiency,and utilization efficiency. Compared with 270 kg·hm-2 nitrogen rate without sulfur application,the grain yield of this combination treatment was increased by 5.7%. In addition,nitrogen rate of 195 kg·hm-2 combined with sulfur rate of 60 kg·hm-2 also promoted the dough development time,stability time,and the content of protein components. The present results suggest that combined application of nitrogen and sulfur can enhance the absorption and utilization of nitrogen in plants,increase grain yield and improve grain protein quality and flour quality. Under the conditions of nitrogen reduction,appropriate application of sulfur can be commended as a cultivation approach of promoting good-quality and high-efficiency production of wheat.