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孔令英,赵俊晔,于振文,石 玉.宽幅播种条件下种植密度对小麦群体结构和光能利用率的影响[J].麦类作物学报,2020,(7):850
宽幅播种条件下种植密度对小麦群体结构和光能利用率的影响
Effect of Planting Density on Population Structure and Light Use Efficiency of Wheat under Wide-Width Sowing Conditions
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.2020.07.10
中文关键词:  种植密度  土壤相对含水量  群体结构  冠层光截获  水分利用效率  干物质积累量  籽粒产量
英文关键词:Planting density  Soil relative water content  Population structure  Canopy light interception  Water use efficiency  Dry matter accumulation  Grain yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31771715, 31601243);农业部现代小麦产业技术体系项目(CARS-3-1-19)
作者单位
孔令英,赵俊晔,于振文,石 玉 (1.山东农业大学农业部作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室山东泰安 2710182.中国农业科学院农业信息研究所北京 100081) 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨宽幅播种条件下种植密度对小麦群体结构和光能利用率的影响,以小麦品种济麦22为试验材料,在大田试验条件下设置90×104 株·hm-2(D1)、180×104 株·hm-2(D2)、270×104 株·hm-2(D3)、360×104 株·hm-2(D4)4个种植密度处理,分析了不同种植密度下麦田0~100 cm土层土壤相对含水量、小麦群体动态、叶面积指数、冠层光截获特性、光能利用率、阶段干物质积累量、籽粒产量及水分利用效率的特点。结果表明,D2处理的麦田0~100 cm土层土壤相对含水量在返青期显著高于D3、D4处理,与D1处理无显著差异;在拔节期、开花期、成熟期D2处理显著高于D1、D4处理,与D3处理差异不显著。群体总茎数在越冬期、返青期、拔节期均随种植密度的增加而增加,且不同处理之间差异显著,在开花期、成熟期D4处理显著高于其他处理,D3、D2处理差异不显著,但显著高于D1处理;分蘖成穗率在D2处理下达到最大值,为52.51%;D2处理的叶面积指数在开花后0 d、开花后7 d、开花后14 d显著高于其他处理;开花后7 d,D2处理的冠层光合有效辐射截获量、截获率、光能利用率均显著高于D1、D3、D4处理,冠层光合有效辐射透射率表现为D3、D2处理差异不显著,但显著低于D4处理和D1处理。D2处理的拔节至开花阶段、开花至成熟阶段干物质积累量显著高于其他处理,单位面积穗数随种植密度的增加而增加,但D2、D3处理差异不显著;穗粒数、千粒重随种植密度的增加而降低,D1、D2处理差异不显著,但显著高于D3、D4处理;籽粒产量及水分利用效率均在D2处理下达到最大值,分别为9 158.71 kg·hm-2、17.21 kg·hm-2·mm-1。这说明在本试验条件下,180×104 株·hm-2为构建宽幅播种小麦合理群体结构、提高群体光能利用率、籽粒产量及水分利用效率的最优种植密度。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the effects of different planting densities on wheat population structure and light use efficiency under the condition of wide-width sowing, Jimai 22 was used as experimental material and four planting density levels:90×104 plants·hm-2(D1), 180×104 plants·hm-2(D2), 270×104 plants·hm-2(D3) and 360×104 plants·hm-2(D4) were set up under field conditions. The differences of soil relative water content, wheat population dynamics, leaf area index, canopy light interception characteristics, light use efficiency, dry matter accumulation, grain yield and water use efficiency were compared and analyzed under different planting densities. The results showed that the soil relative water content of 0-100 cm soil layer under D2 treatment was significantly higher than that under D3 and D4 treatments at the revival stage, but it was not significantly different from that under D1 treatment.The soil relative water content of 0-100 cm soil layer under D2 treatment was significantly higher than that of D1 and D4 at jointing stage, anthesis stage and maturity stage, but it was not significantly different from that under D3 treatment. The total number of stems in the population increased with the increase of planting density in wintering, re-greening and jointing stages, and there were significant differences among the treatments. The total number of stem under D4 treatment was significantly higher than that under other treatments at flowering and maturity stages, and there was not significant difference between D3 and D2 treatment,which was significantly higher than that under D1 treatment, and the tillering rate reached to a maximum of 52.51% under D2 treatment. The leaf area index of D2 treatment was significantly higher than that of other treatments at 0, 7 and 14 days after flowering. At 7 days after flowering, the PAR interception, interception rate and light use efficiency of D2 treatment were significantly higher than those under D1, D3 and D4 treatments.Photosynthetic active radiation rate was not significantly different between D3 and D2 treatments, which was significantly lower than those under D4 and D1 treatments.The dry matter accumulation under D2 treatment from jointing to anthesis stage and anthesis to maturity stage was significantly higher than that under other treatments.The number of ears per unit area increased with the increase of planting density, but the difference between D2 and D3 treatments was not significant.The number of panicles and thousand-grain weight decreased with the increase of planting density,and the differences between D1 and D2 treatments were not significant, which were significantly higher than those under D3 and D4 treatments. Both grain yield and water use efficiency reached the maximum under D2 treatment of 9 158.71 kg·hm-2 and 17.21 kg·hm-2·mm-1,respectively. Under the condition of wide-width sowing, the planting density of 180×104 plants·hm-2 is the optimal treatment to construct a reasonable population structure, improve the population light use efficiency, grain yield and water use efficiency.
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