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张明伟 ,王梦尧,马 泉,丁锦峰,朱 敏,李春燕,朱新开,封超年,郭文善.稻茬晚播小麦不同品种产量及群体特征和氮效应比较研究[J].麦类作物学报,2020,(7):832
稻茬晚播小麦不同品种产量及群体特征和氮效应比较研究
Differences in Yield,Population Structure and Nitrogen Efficiency of Different Wheat Varieties under Late-Sowing Conditions Following Rice
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.2020.07.08
中文关键词:  晚播  小麦  品种  产量  群体结构
英文关键词:Late sowing  Wheat  Variety  Yield  Population structure
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(973计划)项目(2018YFD0300802);重大农业技术推广计划试点项目;江苏省科研院校农技推广服务试点项目(TG[17]007);扬州市“绿扬金凤计划”项目(2018);江苏高校优势学科建设工程项目;江苏省和扬州大学优秀科技创新团队项目
作者单位
张明伟 ,王梦尧,马 泉,丁锦峰,朱 敏,李春燕,朱新开,封超年,郭文善 (1.扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室/扬州大学小麦研究中心江苏扬州 225009
2.扬州市农业技术推广站江苏扬州 225000
3.江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心江苏扬州 225009) 
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中文摘要:
      为筛选出适合苏中地区稻茬晚播条件下种植的小麦品种,以苏中地区生产上大面积推广应用的宁麦14、宁麦19、苏麦188、扬麦16、扬麦22、扬辐麦4号、扬麦23和扬麦25为试验材料,比较了不同品种在晚播条件下生育进程、产量、群体结构特征、氮效率及抗倒性的差异。结果表明,晚播条件下,扬麦16、扬麦23、宁麦14以及宁麦19的生育进程略快于苏麦188及扬麦22,扬麦16和扬麦23较其他品种早熟1~2 d。两年度均以扬麦23产量最高(8 168.82 kg·hm-2),其次为扬辐麦4号(8 124.06 kg·hm-2),这两个品种生育前期干物质积累量高, LAI较大,花后旗叶叶绿素含量较高。扬麦16虽然越冬期有较大的生长量及分蘖发生量,熟期较早,但晚播条件下穗数不足,限制了其产量潜力的发挥。成熟期扬麦16和扬麦23的氮素积累量显著高于宁麦14和扬麦25,花后氮素积累量扬麦23最高。扬辐麦4号和扬麦23氮效率指标优于其他参试品种。扬辐麦4号抗倒伏指数最高,其次为扬麦23和扬麦25,抗倒性能均较好;扬麦22株高与重心高度低于其他品种,但茎秆质量较差。综合考虑,扬麦23和扬辐麦4号生育前期分蘖发生较快,中期群体结构协调,花后旗叶叶绿素含量较高,同时具有较好的抗倒性能,稻茬晚播条件下推荐选用。
英文摘要:
      In order to screen out the wheat varieties suitable for planting under late-sowing conditions in central Jiangsu region,eight wheat varieties(Ningmai 14,Ningmai 19,Sumai 188,Yangmai 16,Yangmai 22,Yangfumai 4,Yangmai 23 and Yangmai 25),which were widely used in production,were selected to study the adaptation under late sowing conditions by comparing the differences in fertility process,yield,population structure nitrogen efficiency and lodging resistance characteristics. The results showed that under the conditions of late sowing,the growth process of Yangmai 16,Yangmai 23,Ningmai 14 and Ningmai 19 was slightly faster than that of Sumai 188 and Yangmai 22,otherwise the maturity stage of Yangmai 16 and Yangmai 23 was 1-2 days earlier than other varieties. In the two year experiment,the average yield of Yangmai 23 was the highest,reaching to 8 168.82 kg·hm-2,followed by Yangfumai 4,with average yield of 8 124.06 kg·hm-2. Yangmai 23 and Yangfumai 4 showed higher dry matter accumulation,larger leaf area index(LAI) at early growth stage. Also,the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate after anthesis were significantly higher. Although Yangmai 16 thrived in early growth stage,and has the characteristics of high grain filling rate,good yield stability and early maturity,the number of spike was difficult to increase under super-late sowing conditions,which limited its yield potential.The nitrogen accumulation of Yangmai 16 and Yangmai 23 in the maturity was significantly higher than that of Ningmai 14 and Yangmai 25.After anthesis,the nitrogen accumulation of Yangmai 23 was the highest. The nitrogen efficiency indicators of Yangfumai 4 and Yangmai 23 were better than those of other tested varieties. Yangfumai 4 had the highest lodging resistance index,followed by Yangmai 23 and Yangmai 25,both of which had better lodging resistance. The plant height and center of gravity of Yangmai 22 were lower than those of other varieties,but the stem quality was poor. Generally,Yangmai 23 and Yangfumai 4 had larger tillering at early growth,population structure coordination in the mid-term,higher chlorophyll content in flag leaves after anthesis,and had better lodging resistence,which are recommended to use under late sowing conditions.
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