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周 栋,于 琦,李 敖,李 军.施氮量对渭北旱地冬小麦产量和籽粒品质的影响[J].麦类作物学报,2020,(7):818
施氮量对渭北旱地冬小麦产量和籽粒品质的影响
Effect of Nitrogen Application Rate on Winter Wheat Yield and Grain Quality in Weibei Dryland
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.2020.07.06
中文关键词:  渭北旱地  冬小麦  施氮量  产量  品质
英文关键词:Weibei dryland  Winter wheat  Nitrogen application rate  Yield  Quality
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD22B02)
作者单位
周 栋,于 琦,李 敖,李 军 (西北农林科技大学农学院陕西杨凌 712100) 
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中文摘要:
      为明确施氮量对渭北旱塬冬小麦产量与籽粒品质的影响,以小麦品种长6359和晋麦47为供试材料,设置0、60、120、180、240 kg·hm-2共5个施氮水平(分别用N0、N1、N2、N3、N4表示),探究施氮量对旱地冬小麦产量和籽粒品质相关指标及氮素农学效率的影响。结果表明:(1)在0~180 kg·hm-2施氮范围内,施氮对旱地冬小麦的穗数和产量影响均达到显著水平,但穗粒数和千粒重在不同施氮处理之间差异均不显著。施氮量达到240 kg·hm-2 时,穗数依旧增长,穗粒数和籽粒产量则出现一定程度的降低。(2)在 0~180 kg·hm-2 施氮范围内,籽粒蛋白质含量、湿面筋含量、吸水率、淀粉含量、沉降值、面团稳定时间和形成时间均随施氮量的增加而提高,但出粉率并未与施氮量呈现相关性,容重则与施氮量呈负相关。施氮量超过180 kg·hm-2 后,除面团形成时间外,其余品质参数均下降。(3)从冬小麦各生育时期植株氮素含量与品质相关性看,拔节期二者关系最为密切。综合考虑冬小麦产量与籽粒品质,推荐渭北旱地麦田最适宜的施氮量为180 kg·hm-2,较渭北旱塬平均施氮量降低约6.4%,推荐品种为晋麦47。
英文摘要:
      In order to clarify the effect of nitrogen application rate on winter wheat yield and grain quality in Weibei dryland,wheat variety Chang 6359 and Jinmai 47 were used as test materials,and five nitrogen fertilizers application rates were setup at 0,60,120,180 and 240 kg·hm-2(represented by N0,N1,N2,N3 and N4,respectively). The effects of nitrogen application rate on winter wheat yield and grain quality related indices and nitrogen agronomic efficiency in dryland were investigated. The results showed that:Within the range of 0-180 kg·hm-2,the effect of nitrogen application on the number of spikes and yield of winter wheat in dryland reached a significant level,but the difference between kernel number and 1 000-grain weight under different nitrogen treatments was not significant. When the nitrogen application rate reached to 240 kg·hm-2,the number of panicles continued to increase,but the number of kernels per spike and grain yield decreased to some extent. Within the range of 0-180 kg·hm-2 nitrogen application,grain protein content,wet gluten content,water absorption,starch content,sedimentation value,dough stabilization time and formation time increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate,but flour yielding rate was not correlated with the amount of nitrogen,and the bulk weight was negatively correlated with the amount of nitrogen. The quality parameters of the dough decreased except for the dough development time when the nitrogen application rate was over 180 kg·hm-2.The correlation between plant nitrogen content and quality at different growth stages of winter wheat showed that the nitrogen content of the two varieties at jointing stage was the most significant for quality control.Considering the yield and grain quality of winter wheat,the optimum nitrogen application rate in the wheat field in Weibei dryland is 180 kg·hm-2.Compared with that in the Weibei dry plateau,the average nitrogen application rate was reduced by about 6.4%,and the recommended variety is Jinmai 47.
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