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王汉霞,单福华,田立平,马巧云,张风廷.2006-2018年北京市审定冬小麦品种的综合性状分析[J].麦类作物学报,2020,(7):789
2006-2018年北京市审定冬小麦品种的综合性状分析
Analysis of Comprehensive Characteristics of Wheat Varieties Registered in Beijing from 2006 to 2018
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.2020.07.03
中文关键词:  北京  小麦  综合性状  相关分析
英文关键词:Beijing  Wheat  Comprehensive characteristics  Analysis
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2017YFD0101000)
作者单位
王汉霞,单福华,田立平,马巧云,张风廷 (北京市农林科学院北京杂交小麦工程技术研究中心北京 100097) 
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中文摘要:
      为进一步了解北京市冬小麦产量及主要农艺性状的演变规律,为北京市冬小麦育种和生产提供借鉴,对2006-2018年北京市审定的49个小麦品种进行了产量、品质与抗病性分析。结果表明,北京市审定的小麦品种平均产量呈逐年递增趋势,平均每年增长63.11 kg·hm-2;穗粒数呈逐年增长趋势,其他农艺性状均呈下降趋势。主要农艺性状与产量的相关程度为:穗粒数>穗数>千粒重>株高;各农艺性状对产量的偏相关均为正值,偏相关程度表现为:穗粒数>穗数>千粒重>株高,3个产量构成因素对产量的偏相关达到极显著水平;产量构成因素对产量的直接通径系数均为正值,大小顺序为:穗粒数>穗数>千粒重;审定品种的容重、蛋白质和湿面筋含量均高于中筋小麦品质分类标准,有7个小麦品种达到强筋标准,有 51.02%小麦品种的面团稳定时间低于中筋小麦品质分类标准,故下一步应把提高面团稳定性作为提高小麦品质育种的主攻方向。在审定的小麦品种中,只有中麦12兼抗条锈病、叶锈病和白粉病3种病害,京冬17等9个品种兼抗条锈病和叶锈病,农大413兼抗条锈病和白粉病,中麦1197兼抗叶锈病和白粉病。由此可见,北京市小麦品种产量的提高应在保持适宜单位面积穗数的基础上,增加穗粒数,提高千粒重,同时进一步引进新的抗病、优质种质资源,以培育高产、优质、多抗的小麦新品种。
英文摘要:
      In order to provide references for wheat breeding and production,the evolution of the yield,quality and disease resistance of 49 winter wheat varieties registered in Beijing from 2006 to 2019 were conducted. The results showed that the average yield increased by 63.11 kg·hm-2 per year.Grains per spike showed an increasing trend,but other agronomic characters showed the decreasing trends. The correlation degree between yield and other agronomic traits ranked as grains per spike>spike number>1 000-grain weight>plant height. The direct path coefficients between the agronomic characters and yield were positive,ranking as grains per spike>spike number>1 000-grain weight>plant height,and there were significantly positive correlation between three yield components and yield (P<0.01). The direct path coefficients between three yield components and yield were positive,ranking as grains per spike>spike number>1 000-grain weight. The bulk weight,protein and wet gluten content of the registered varieties were relatively higher than classification criteria for quality of middle gluten wheat,only seven wheat varieties met the standards of the strong gluten wheat. 51.02% of the varieties had shorter stability time,which was lower than the standard of the middle gluten wheat. The main direction of quality breeding should focus on improving the stability time. The results of resistance evaluation showed that only Zhongmai 12 is resistant to three diseases (stripe rust,leaf rust and powdery mildew). Nine varieties are resistant to stripe rust and leaf rust,including Jingdong 17 and so on. Nongda 413 is resistant to stripe rust and powdery mildew,and Zhongmai 1197 is resistant to leaf rust and powdery mildew. Therefore the increase of grain yield for wheat varieties of Beijing was realized by improving the grains per spike and 1 000-grain weight on the basis of ensuring a certain spike number per unit area. Meanwhile the breeding objective were to develop high quality,high yield and multiple disease resistance genes of wheat varieties by introducing new resistance sources and simultaneous improvement of yield and quality.
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