| Abstract: In order to reveal the mechanism of oxidative response of wheat anthers under high temperature stress, wheat anthers of high-temperature stress (42℃± 1℃) at different developmental stages (later-uninucleate stage, binucleate stage, and trinucleate stage) were used to study the rate of superoxide anion (O2-·), the content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activities of major antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that after high-temperature stress, the O2-· production rate, H2O2 and MDA content of wheat anther were significantly higher than those in the control, and the O2-·production rate showed a trend of "low-high", and the difference between the high-temperature stress and control at the later-uninucleate stage was higher than that in other development stages. However the H2O2 and MDA contents in the high-temperature stress and the control was significantly different at the binucleate stage. Meanwhile, the activities of SOD, POD and CAT in high temperature stress were significantly lower than those in the control. Accordingly, high-temperature stress breaks the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the metabolism of antioxidant system in wheat anther, and it was intensified with the development of anther, which makes the wheat anther at the critical period of development in a serious oxygen stress environment for a long time and causes abortion. The results lay a foundation for further elucidating the response mechanism of wheat anther to high temperature stress, and also provide evidence for understanding the mechanism of wheat anther abortion under high temperature stress.